Expanding Your Atari

by Mark Fowlis

 

Issue 32

Mar/Apr 88

Next Article >>

<< Prev Article

 

 

In this first article of a new series Mark Fowlis takes a general look at the various ways you can expand your Atari 400/800, XL or XE

If you are at all interested in the hardware side of computing you will, no doubt have looked through the multitude of computer interfaces, expansion modules and gadgets available at local computer stores. If I were to ask you which computer is the best for adding on these bits and pieces, which would you say? The BBC? Spectrum? Commodore?

Wrong on all counts! The Atari beats them all hands down with its Parallel Bus Interface (the rear port connector to us mere mortals), a cartridge port which can also be used or expansion, two (or in some cases four) joystick ports, which can be reprogrammed as outputs or inputs, and a serial port.

Why then, if the Atari is so great for expansions, are there such a a small number of Atari add-ons and why are those that are available so expensive? Well, there are several reasons behind this. Many of the other computers lack the features already in the Atari and need these extra add-ons to even compete, but a more significant reason is that Atari Inc. has always taken years to release any hardware details to the public and, as a result, there are hardly any expansions made for the Atari. The manufacturers can charge higher prices as there is little competition.

DO IT YOURSELF

For those owners who want to add something to their Atari, help is now at hand in the shape of this series of articles, which will teach you how to build your own add-ons at a fraction of the cost of ready-made units in the shops. This first article will take an overall look at the various expansion possibilities and later articles will go on to discuss specific projects.

If you are seriously considering expanding your Atari you will need several essential tools. These are a low power soldering iron suitable for electronics, some solder, wirecutters and metal tweezers or snipe-nose pliers. A multimeter and/or a logic probe is also invaluable. For those of you who don't have a logic probe an extremely simple circuit is provided in Figure 1. This will when connected tell you if the point probe is touching at logic level 1 (i.e. + 5V), or logic 0 (i.e. OV). These are the two basic voltages within the circuitry of most computers, except for power supplies and video circuits which do not concern us anyway. Hence for interfacing we will be using TTL (transistor-transistor logic) chips as these handle the correct levels.

Let's now take a look at each of the ports available to us.

THE JOYSTICK PORTS

These are the most widely known expansion ports on the Atari. The connections of these ports are shown in Figure 2. Pins 1-4 and 6 are normally at +5V level, and these are connected by a switch to Ov when the joystick is pushed in a direction see Figure 3. With five push-to-make switches you can easily make an arcade-type joystick.

The PIA (or joystick) bits provide the input to one (or two in 400 800 models) 6520 PIA chip(s) read by the computer. The PIA (Peripheral Interface Adapter) can re-configure these lines to be either input (as normal) or output depending on the `direction control register' in the chip. We can control this quite simply. Figure 4 shows the bit use of the control register(s).

The important bits are 2 and 3. Bit 3 you have probably come across before in POKE 54018 with 52 or 60 to switch the cassette motor on and off. Bit 2 controls the use of the data register. If bit 2 is high (set to 1) then any data written to the data register goes to the output and data on the inputs can be read from the data register. If bit 2 is low (set to 0) then the data register gives access to the port direction control register. For each bit (which represents an input/output line), the level determines the direction. If we put a 0 in bit 5 then line 5 will be an output.

Conversely putting a 1 in a bit makes it an input. Bit 2 is then set back to 1 so that data can be read and written to the data register. Lucky 400/800 owners have two sets of these and can have 16 controllable lines. In the 600/800XL and 130XE the second PIA is used for memory control and management.

If we wish to use the port as an output we will need so kind of driver circuit as the outputs can only handle a small load. Figure 5 shows some typical driver circuits for various loads.

The limitation of the joystick ports is that they only have 10 lines for digital data, if we include the two trigger lines which are always inputs. We can therefore only have expansions using a limited number of connections. We could drive the lines to act as a serial interface for us, but this is a lot of work, mostly in writing the software, although it can be very effective.

Some sort of program must, however, be loaded in to operate any joystick port driven interface and as this program resides somewhere in memory, may be written over or ignored by other programs. As a result, you cannot guarantee that your interface will work with all commercial software (despite the claims of certain manufacturers!), and obviously you cannot use joysticks as well!

The joystick ports are also designed to accept light-pen input. These connect into port 2 (or 4 on the 400/800). Unlike other computers, the light pen circuitry can be really simple as all we need is a light sensitive switch to connect the trigger line to OV when the electron beam of the television screen passes it. As the beam scans the screen rapidly we need a fairly fast device. Many designs have been produced before so I shall refrain from yet another light pen circuit unless there is a demand for one. The light pen X and Y screen positions are provided by the Atari in memory locations 564 and 565.

The potentiometer inputs A and B are normally used for the paddle controllers if you have any, however they can be used to read the position of other variable resistors (potentiometers), see Figure 6. This could be useful in many applications such as position sensing in robots, graphic input devices, paddles, etc.
The values are read from the following locations:

Port 1 POT. A 53760 ($D200)
          POT. B 53761
Port 2 POT. A 53762
          POT. B 53763 ($D203)

The 400/800 computers have yet another four inputs (53764-53767).

We can use smaller value potentiometers if we connect a capacitor from the potentiometer input line to OV. This slows down the charging of the internal conversion capacitor, making the computer think the resistance of the external potentiometer is larger. This is a case of trial and error for individual potentiometers and is only useful if you MUST use one with a smaller value.

If the reading of the pot inputs is being done in machine code we may require some other locations:

ALLPOT 53768 ($D208) gives the status of the converters, 1 bit representing 1 converter. A bit set to 1 means that the value of that input is valid.
POTGO 53771 ($D20B) starts the conversion process on the inputs.

Also of interest is bit 2 of location 53775 ($D2OF) which when set to 1 enables fast scanning of the inputs. This fastscanning is in 2 TV scan lines (128uS) but is not as accurate as the normal scan.

A final note on the joystick ports the +5V supply is not intended for heavy loads or lots of circuitry. Anything more than a few logic gates should have its own power supply.

MONITOR OUTPUT (XL/XE models only)

This provides the composite video output to a monitor. Note that TTL monitors will NOT work! The pin connections are shown in Figure 7.

The audio output is around 0.75V peak-peak which is a little too high for Hi-Fi 'AUX' inputs which want around 150mV pk-pk. We can step down the voltage using a potential divider see Figure 8. Now you should be able to have Hi-Fi sound from your Atari! Check the input levels to your Hi-Fi first though, R1 may need to be larger if the input level is less than 150mV.

THE SERIAL PORT

This is pretty difficult to use unless you intend using a computer at the other end to decode the signals and send the appropriate reply codes. As you can daisy chain a number of devices, each data message has a device address encoded and the destination must acknowledge each frame from the computer. Personally I would not advise expanding via the serial port as it is too complex and not particularly fast. Also any driving software must handle the device by the standard SIO calls. For the interested, the pin connections are in Figure 9 and a good description of the operation can be found in the 400/800 reference manual available from Atari.

THE CARTRIDGE PORT

Although predominantly used for ROM cartridges, the cartridge port is an extremely useful expansion port giving us a 16K block of memory for registers and I/O. The pin assignment is shown in Figure 10 and includes:

* Address lines AO to Al2 (8K coverage)
* Data Bus (DO to D7)
* R/W Read/Write
* S4 Right slot ROM select line. ($8000 $9FFF).
* S5 Left slot ROM select line. ($A000 $BFFF). * RD4 Right ROM present. ( + 5V if it is)
* RD5 Left ROM present. ( + 5V if it is)
* 02 System clock.
* CCTNL' ROM Bank Control select line: driven by any R/W to $D5000 to $D5FF. Used to select 1 of 2 ROMS in the area selected. (Supercartridges).

We can fit 32K of ROM into a cartridge and select between two banks of 16K in the available space ($8000 to $BFFF). The only difference with using the cartridge port is that you must use cassette or disk based languages as the cartridge expansion will occupy the cartridge area, hence the Assembler/Editor cartridge cannot be used! We can however write our programs before and convert them to Basic DATA statements for loading by the inbuilt Basic.

To connect to this port you will need a 15 way double sided edge card of 0.1 inch spacing contacts to plug into the slot. This could then be connected to a card frame for further expansion. Alternatively for a chosen application with a small number of components a 'cartridge' could be made on a double-sided p.c.b.

To interface to the cartridge port we must, in most cases, make use of the right hand slot (i.e. $8000 to $9FFF) as the left hand slot ($A000 to $BFFF) is occupied by Basic. If we are using a purpose written machine code boot program, however, we could use either or both halves.

THE PARALLEL BUS INTERFACE (XL/XE only)

One of the greatest mysteries of the newest range of Atari computers is the rear expansion port. Hardly anyone seems to know how to use it, and there have been a small number of slightly confusing articles. Adverts too, manage to confuse the use of the port. We shall now set history straight (I hope!).

The port presents us with the full address bus of the computer AO to A15, allowing observation of any memory location see Figure 11. The data bus is also present. Read/Write and the system clock are provided too. Where this port really starts to differ is in the extra useful lines ....

 

CAS - Column Address Strobe, output for RAM addressing.
RAS - Row Address Strobe, output for the same.
AUDIO - Audio input allowing you to have sound feeding through your T.V./monitor speaker.
RESET - Output, to reset any expansions on power-up etc.

REFRESH - Refresh timing output.
MPD - Math Pack Disable Input. Disables Floating point ROM ($D800 to $DFFF) for parallel bus interfaces.
IRQ - Interrupt request input.
READY - Ready input. Used for slow memory devices.

EXTENB - External decoder output for PBI devices. If you want to use the expansion for callable devices such as disk drives then you need this.
EXTSEL - Input to disable internal RAM, to allow input. This is VERY useful ...

Note that there is NO way of disabling the operating system from the port. Some recent expansion units claim to be expandable to allow multiple Operating Systems via the rear port, however these will need internal modification of the host computer thus invalidating your guarantee.

There are two ways of using the parallel bus interface. Firstly, as Atari intended, it may be used as a device. This could then be handled by the standard calls such as LIST "P:" etc. However this requires a 2K device handler ROM to overlay the floating point ROM. It might just be a little over the top if we want a simple I 0 port and don't really want to spend time programming 2K ROM's and writing device handlers! Secondly, you can use it, as it probably will be used in nearly all cases, as a powerful expansion port.

130XE owners may well be getting worried by now. Where is the massive expansion port I am talking about? Apparently Atari were not too happy that very few products had been released to use the rear port on the 600/800XL, so they simplified it to a 'cartridge port expander'. Not one of the cleverest moves for, as in the cartridge port, you cannot use a cartridge and a rear port expansion! So for 130XE owners, the same rules apply as for the cartridge port.

 

COMING NEXT

That's the overview of the expansion possibilities. I hope that it has whetted your appetite. Next issue I'll be revealing the details of the 130XE cartridge port expander (the equivalent of the rear expansion port) as well as the 400/800 rear expansion bus (Atari's biggest secret!). Also I'll be showing how to use the rear expansion port to connect to a multitude of projects.

_________________

WARNING: Unless you are absolutely sure you know what you are doing it is possible to damage your computer when attaching any expansion circuits. Neither the author nor PAGE 6 can accept any responsibility for any damage resulting from any project undertaken as the result of suggestions made in this series.


top